The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ – hudōr, “water”[1] and σφαῖρα – sphaira, “sphere”[2]) in physical geography describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrosphere

State of the Ocean: Ocean Acidification and Previous Marine Extinctions

The 2013 report on the State of the Ocean, by IPSO can be accessed here (PDF). From the report: Executive Summary • Climate change and the ocean – What does the future hold? The ocean isshielding us from the worst effects of accelerating climate change by absorbing excess CO2 and heat from the atmosphere. The twin effects…

NASA: Ocean Heat Content

Oceanic heat content (OHC) is the heat stored in the ocean. Oceanography and climatology are the science branches which study ocean heat content. The changes in the ocean heat play an important role in sea level rise, because of thermal expansion. It is with high confidence that Ocean warming accounts for 90% of the energy accumulation from global warming between 1971 and 2010.  …

Anoxia and Euxinia Ocean Environmental Change

Reconstructing the history of euxinia in a coastal sea Caroline P. Slomp, 2013 DOI 10.1130/focus0420131.1 Web http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/41/4/523.full Areas of the coastal ocean where oxygen is low or absent in bottom waters, so-called dead zones, are expanding worldwide (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). Increased inputs of nutrients from land are enhancing algal blooms, and the sinking of this…

Our Future In a World Without Ice Caps – Peter Ward

Brown Bag Lecture Series; Center for Student Engagement & Leadership; and Arts, Culture, and Civic Engagement Apr. 11, 2013: In honor of Earth Month: Peter D. Ward, Ph.D., is a paleontologist and professor of Geological Sciences at the University of Washington. Ward specializes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event (the one that killed the dinosaurs), the…

Ocean Acidification in Earth’s Past: Insights to the Future – James Zachos

Presented by James Zachos, Ph.D., University of California at Santa Cruz, at the 2013 Metcalf Institute Annual Public Lecture Series, June 13, 2013. Related Long-term legacy of massive carbon input to the Earthsystem: Anthropocene versus Eocene

Global warming could change strength of El Nino

Via Phys.org September 11, 2013: Global warming could impact the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), altering the cycles of El Niño and La Niña events that bring extreme drought and flooding to Australia and many other Pacific-rim countries. New research published in Nature Geoscience using coral samples from Kiribati has revealed how the ENSO cycle has changed…

Methane hydrate destabilization a potential scenario

Excerpts from an episode of History Channel’s “Mega Disasters” series. This explores the paper published by Northwestern University’s Gregory Ryskin. His thesis: the oceans can produce massive eruptions of explosive methane gas. Methane distribution in the water column: Once released into the water column, methane is distributed by currents and aerobic methane oxidation by bacteria…

Estimating northern polar CH4 flux

A compilation of related science with some commentary. Microbes in thawing permafrost: the unknown variable in the climate change equation David E Graham, Matthew D Wallenstein, Tatiana A Vishnivetskaya, Mark P Waldrop,Tommy J Phelps, Susan M Pfiffner, Tullis C Onstott, Lyle G Whyte, Elizaveta M Rivkina,David A Gilichinsky, Dwayne A Elias, Rachel Mackelprang, Nathan C…

World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0 – 2000 m), 1955 – 2010

S. Levitus, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer,O. K. Baranova,H. E. Garcia,R. A. Locarnini,A. V. Mishonov,J. R. Reagan,D. Seidov,E. S. Yarosh, and M. M. Zweng | published 17 May 2012 Abstract We provide updated estimates of the change of ocean heat content(OHC) and the thermosteric component of sea level change of the 0–700 and 0–2000…

The Ocean Is Going To Start Confusing Fish And Dissolving Seashells

Climate Progress August 27, 2013: Ocean acidification driven by increasing atmospheric carbon levels is a substantial threat to marine life, a new study has confirmed. The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, analyzed 167 studies on the effects of ocean acidification on corals, crustaceans, mollusks, fishes and echinoderms, a group which includes starfish…

Climate Extremes and the Carbon Cycle

A new study (doi:10.1038/nature12350) published in nature, explores the impacts of extreme weather events on the carbon cycle. By Bobby Magill / Wunderground, published: August 15, 2013: Devastating drought in the Southwest, unprecedented wildfire activity, scorching heat waves and other extreme weather are often cited as signs of a changing climate. But what if those extreme…

Each degree of global warming might ultimately raise global sea levels by more than 2 meters

By PIK: 07/15/2013 – Greenhouse gases emitted today will cause sea level to rise for centuries to come. Each degree of global warming is likely to raise sea level by more than 2 meters in the future, a study now published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows. While thermal expansion of…