The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ – hudōr, “water”[1] and σφαῖρα – sphaira, “sphere”[2]) in physical geography describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrosphere

Arctic Ocean ‘acidifying rapidly’

BBC: The Arctic seas are being made rapidly more acidic by carbon-dioxide emissions, according to a new report. Scientists from the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) monitored widespread changes in ocean chemistry in the region. They say even if CO2 emissions stopped now, it would take tens of thousands of years for Arctic Ocean chemistry to…

NASA: Arctic Ocean Currents Changed

The transpolar drift (purple arrows) is a dominant circulation feature in the Arctic Ocean that carries freshwater runoff (red arrows) from rivers in Russia across the North Pole and south towards Greenland. Under changing atmospheric conditions, emergent circulation patterns (blue arrows) drive freshwater runoff east towards Canada, resulting in freshening of Arctic water in the…

Stefan Rahmstorf: The Basics of Global Warming

Prof. Stefan Rahmstorf explains the basics of Climate Science. Basic data sets and findings about Global Warming, including some comments on historic land marks of the Science. Watch part two “Impacts of Climate Change” These lectures form part of a broader lecture course called World in Transition. It includes 11 themes, presented by the members…